For two centuries, too many discussions about hunger and resource scarcity has been haunted by the ghost of scholar Parson Thomas Malthus. Malthus warned that rising populations would exhaust resources, especially those needed for food production. Exponential population growth would outstrip food output.
Humanity now faces a major challenge as global warming is expected to frustrate the production of enough food as the world’s population rises to 9.7 billion by 2050.
Timothy Wise’s new book Eating Tomorrow: Agribusiness, Family Farmers, and the Battle for the Future of Food (New Press, New York, 2019) argues that solutions currently put forward by government, philanthropic and private sector luminaries are misleading. The early 2008 food price crisis has often been wrongly associated with the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. The number of hungry in the world was said to have risen to over a billion, feeding a resurgence of Neo-Malthusianism.
Agribusiness advocates fed such fears, insist that food production must double by 2050, and high-yielding industrial agriculture under the auspices of agribusiness is the only solution. In fact, the world is mainly fed by hundreds of millions of small-scale, family farms that produce over two-thirds of developing countries’ food.
Contrary to conventional wisdom, neither food scarcity nor poor physical access are the main causes of food insecurity and hunger. Instead, Reuters has observed a “global grain glut”, with surplus cereal stocks piling up.
Meanwhile, poor production, processing and storage facilities cause food losses averaging about a third of developing countries’ output. A similar share is believed lost due to wasteful food storage, marketing and consumption behaviour.
Nevertheless, despite grain abundance, the 2018 State of Food Insecurity report — by Rome-based United Nations food agencies led by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) — reported rising chronic and severe hunger or undernourishment involving more than 800 million people.
Political, philanthropic and corporate leaders have promised to help struggling African and other countries by offering to improve farming practices. New seed and other technologies would modernise those left behind. But producing more food, by itself, does not enable the hungry to eat. Thus, agribusiness and its philanthropic promoters are often the problem, not the solution, in feeding the world.
Eating Tomorrow addresses related questions such as: Why rising global food production does not feed the hungry? How can we “feed the world” of rising populations and unsustainable pressure on land, water and other natural resources that farmers need to grow food?
Family farmers lack power
Drawing on five years of extensive fieldwork in Southern Africa, Mexico, India and the US Midwest, Wise concludes that the problem is essentially one of power. He shows how powerful business interests influence government food and agricultural policies to favour larger farms.
This is typically at the expense of “family farmers”, who grow most of the world’s food, but also involves putting consumers and others at risk, for example, due to agrochemical use. His many examples not only detail and explain the many problems farmers face, but also their typically constructive responses despite lack of support, if not worse, from most governments. For example:
• In Mexico, trade liberalisation following the 1993 North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) agreement swamped the country with cheap, subsidised US maize and pork, accelerating migration from the countryside. Apparently, this was actively encouraged by transnational pork producers employing “undocumented” and non-unionised Mexican workers willing to accept low wages and poor working conditions.
• In Malawi, large government subsidies encouraged farmers to buy commercial fertilisers and seeds from US agribusinesses such as the now Bayer-owned Monsanto, but to little effect, as their productivity and food security deteriorated. Meanwhile, Monsanto took over the government seed company, favouring its own patented seeds at the expense of productive local varieties, while a former senior Monsanto official co-authored the national seed policy that threatens to criminalise farmers who save, exchange and sell seeds instead!
• In Zambia, greater use of seeds and fertilisers from agribusiness tripled maize production without reducing the country’s high rates of poverty and malnutrition. Meanwhile, as the government provides 250,000 acres of “farm blocks” to foreign investors, family farmers struggle to acquire farm land.
• In Mozambique too, the government gives away vast tracts of farm land to foreign investors, while women-led cooperatives successfully run their own native maize seed banks.
• Iowa promotes vast monocultures of maize and soybean as pig feed and bio-ethanol rather than “feed the world”.
• A large Mexican farmer cooperative launched an “agro-ecological revolution”, while the old government kept trying to legalise Monsanto’s controversial genetically modified maize. Farmers have thus far halted the Monsanto plan, arguing that genetic modification threatens the rich diversity of native Mexican varieties.
The research was done in 2014 to 2015, when Barack Obama was president, although the narrative begins with developments and policies following the 2008 food price crisis, during George Bush’s last year in the White House. The book expounds on the US businesses’ influence on policies, enabling more aggressive transnational expansion.
Yet, Wise remains optimistic, emphasising that the world can feed the hungry, despite the challenges, as many are finding innovative and effective ways to grow more and better food. He advocates support for farmers’ efforts to improve their soil, output and well-being.
Hungry farmers are nourishing their life-giving soils using ecologically sound practices to plant various native crops, instead of using costly chemicals for export-oriented monocultures. According to Wise, they are growing more food to feed the hungry.
Unfortunately, most national governments and international institutions still favour large-scale, high-input, industrial agriculture, neglecting more sustainable solutions offered by family farmers, and the need to improve the well-being of poor farmers.
Therefore, new agricultural techniques offer prospect of improving the welfare of farmers, not only by increasing productivity and output, but also by limiting costs, effectively using scarce resources, and reducing laborious farm work.
But the world must recognise that farming may no longer be viable for many who face land, water and other resource constraints, unless they get better access to such resources. Meanwhile, malnutrition affects over two billion people in the world, and industrial agriculture contributes about 30% of greenhouse gas emissions.
Going forward, it will be important to ensure affordable and nutritious food supplies, mindful not only of food and water safety, but also of pollution threats. A related challenge will be to enhance affordable dietary diversity to overcome micronutrient deficiencies and diet-related diseases.
Jomo Kwame Sundaram, a former economics professor, was United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development, and recipient of the Wassily Leontief Prize for Advancing the Frontiers of Economic Thought. He is a member of the Economic Action Council.